Comparison of Carbon Footprint, Environment Impact, Efficacy and Benefit–Cost Ratio of Insecticide Resistance Management with Conventional Methods used by Thai Chinese Cabbage Farmers

The Open Agriculture Journal 19 Jan 2024 RESEARCH ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/0118743315286838240116042733



To evaluate and compare the carbon footprint, efficacy, and benefit-cost ratios of Chinese cabbage grown via insecticide resistance management with two farming methods used by Thai farmers.


Insecticide usage is currently being reduced by the employment of sustainable products and the promotion of environmentally friendly methods, thereby increasing the income of Chinese cabbage farmers in Thailand.


This study aims to evaluate the control of insect pests and marketable produce in Chinese cabbage using various methods. Pests were counted every five days, and the marketable produce was evaluated. Greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impact were estimated using methodologies such as the environmental impact quotient, with the pesticide usage costs and benefit-cost ratios recorded.


The study compared two farming methods with insecticide resistance management, revealing that in the growing of Chinese cabbage, the latter exhibited lower emissions per acre and kg. However, the environmental impact was higher in methods 1 and 2 due to the increased spray application involved. The insecticide resistance management method was found to effectively control pests and produce marketable produce with less total investment and labour expenses.


The study analysed the impact of farming practices and pesticide resistance management strategies on the environment and carbon emissions. The results showed that insecticide resistance management is more effective in reducing carbon emissions and positively impacting the environment while also providing a better benefit-cost ratio. However, the study suggests that education and continuous monitoring are required for effective resistance management. The findings also emphasise the need for adaptation to changing pests and the consideration of external factors such as market demand, climate change, and government policies to ensure long-term sustainability.

Keywords: Carbon footprint, Greenhouse gas emission, Chinese cabbage, Benefit-cost ratio, Insecticide resistance management, Insecticide rotation.
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