Structure of Microscopic Fungal Species in Soils at Amber Mining Territories before and during the use of New Technology of Pine Plantation Formation.

The Open Agriculture Journal 06 Mar 2023 RESEARCH ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/18743315-v17-e230120-2022-12



Ukraine is one of the European leaders in amber deposits. The main deposits of the mineral are concentrated in the forests of the Rivne, Zhytomyr and Volyn regions. As a result of the extraction process, the integrity of forest’s ecosystems is violated, the fertile soil layer is destroyed, and 3.5 thousand hectares of forests have to be restored.


Evaluation of different forest management strategies in degraded soil regeneration.


The study aims to explore the response of soil mycobiota to extreme conditions associated with amber mining and to propose biotechnology to restore the fertile soil layer by methods of regenerative land use, namely the use of biomass of various ways of birch cuts, which is the primary succession to the indigenous pine stands in the region.

Materials and Methods:

The study was carried out on the territory of the Klesiv amber deposit in the Ukrainian Polissya. The bioindication method with the help of soil micromycetes was used to assess the quality of the plant development environment in the conditions of ecosystem restoration after amber extraction. To determine the species composition of hyphomycetes, the method of serial dilutions and direct seeding on agar media of soil suspensions was used. The analysis of soil mycobiota was performed using quantitative ecology methods. The method of correlation groups was used to determine the taxonomic diversity of hyphomycetes. To determine the effectiveness of the restoration of the studied forest soils, the express analysis of the content of essential nutrients using NPK-sensor was used. Standard methods for the determination of mobile phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen compounds were used as controls.


The species composition and taxonomic characteristics of soil micromycetes of forest ecosystems disturbed by amber mining have been studied. It was found that in the areas of amber mining, soil micromycetes form linear connections and three-membered structures, which is characteristic of disturbed biocenoses. In the 60-year-old plantation, soil micromycetes form strong six-membered structures that are characteristic of menopausal ecosystems or intact biocenoses. The biotechnology of restoration of the indigenous plantation characteristic of these conditions - pine with an admixture of hanging birch is offered. The result of the application of this technology will allow to reproduce natural forest ecosystems in large areas.


For the first time, the structure of fungal complexes in the areas of amber mining has been determined, which indicates that the formation of a stable structure requires time and a systematic approach to the restoration of damaged soils. In the soils disturbed by amber mining, initial linear, three-membered and four-membered structures were formed, the structural genera of which are the “pioneer genera” Penicillium, Mucor, Rhizopus, the species of which were the first to inhabit plant remains.

In the process of reforestation in areas affected by amber mining, biotechnology was used for the first time, which involved the formation of natural pine stands by cutting birch, forming the primary succession in the studied areas.

The comparison of the results of chemical analysis of soils of the studied areas of the Klesiv forestry before and after the application of birch pruning technology for the formation of pine stands proves the effectiveness of the technology, as in all areas nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were increased in the soil.

Keywords: Micromycetes, Amber mining, Disturbed ecosystems, Indigenous pine stands, Biotechnology of regenerative soil restoration, Microscopic Fungal Species.
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