Effects of Single and Co-infections of Proteus Mirabilis and Aeromonas Hydrophila on Baseline Hematological, Serological, and Histological Data in Cultured Clarias Gariepinus

M. Oghenebrorhie Oghenochuko1, 4, *
, E. Iyesioluwa Ola1, 4
, M. Remilekun Thomas2
, O. Gladys Daodu2
, G. Ademola Oguntuase2
, O. Itunu Aluko2, Emenike Irokanulo2
, B. Oghenerobor Akpor3

1 Landmark University SDG 2 (Zero Hunger), Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria
2 Department of Microbiology, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria
3 Department of Biological Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
4 Department of Animal Science, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria

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Creative Commons License
© 2024 The Author(s). Published by Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Animal Science, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Landmark University SDG 2, Kwara State, Nigeria; E-mail:


Background and Aim

Significant mortality and production disruptions in fish culture are brought on by diseases and parasites. The purpose of the current study was to collect baseline data on the effects of single and co-infections of Proteus mirabilis, and Aeromonas hydrophila in Clarias gariepinus.

Materials and Methods

One hundred and twenty sub-adults of C. gariepinus were divided into control, P. mirabilis, A. hydrophila, and co-infection groups (P. mirabilis X A. hydrophila). Standard methods were used to determine hematology, serology, and histology. Standard microbiology methods were used for microbial analysis.


The single A. hydrophila-infected group had the highest mortality (60% versus 37%) in the co-infected and P. mirabilis groups. A marked decrease was observed in the RBC, hemoglobin, and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) of 2.9×1012/L, 32.8 g/L, and 33.5% in the co-infected fish, compared to the control with 3.6×1012/L, 35.8 g/L, and 41.0%, respectively. Alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and aspartate transaminase levels were significantly lower in the co-infected fish (13.8, 236.0, and 66.3, respectively) compared to the A. hydrophila-infected group. Creatinine and urea levels were, however, higher in the co-infected treatment. The kidneys and livers of the A. hydrophila and co-infected groups were more severely damaged than those of the P. mirabilis and control groups. Vacuolation and necrosis of hepatocytes led to the desquamation of tubular and glomerular epithelial cells in the livers and kidneys of infected fish. Fish infected with A. hydrophila had the highest bacterial load count.


It was concluded that an antagonistic association exists between A. hydrophila and P. mirabilis when they are co-infected.

Keywords: Aeromonas hydrophila, Clarias gariepinus, Multiple infection, Pathology, Produce, Proteus mirabilis.