Efficient Water Use in Dairy Cattle Production: A Review

The Open Agriculture Journal 01 December 2023 REVIEW ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/0118743315270668231127190323



Dairy cattle production has often been pointed out as a big source of wastewater; although these statements seem exaggerated, they can save a lot of water when a correct use of this resource is made.


The objective of this review was to explore what technological improvements in drinking and feeding systems, water reuse systems, and irrigation systems have been made in the last ten years that allow a more efficient use of water and consequently a decrease in water use in dairy cattle production.


The literature analysis for the review involved a keyword-based search, mainly for conference and/or journal articles. The scientific research databases, ScienceDirect and IEEE Xplore, as well as the scientific search engine Google Scholar, were employed to conduct this review.


Dairy farmers can reduce their water footprint by implementing practices that can include proper feeding of animals and monitoring of water consumption, adequate ventilation of facilities, as well as maintenance and repair of water, wastewater, and irrigation systems. Water from heat exchange systems to cool milk after milking can be reused to water and irrigate fields, and the farmers can also use technological equipment to increase the efficiency of irrigation.


Proper management strategies are highly essential for sustaining the livestock production systems and meeting the food demands of a growing population with the available water resources, for which water-saving technologies and strategies are the need of the hour. The use of technological options has been a key driving force for the transition to smarter farming systems and for efficient water use in dairy farms.

Keywords: Sustainable livestock production, Water recycling, Conservation, Partitioning, Efficiency, Smart dairy farming .
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