RESEARCH ARTICLE


Weeds as A Potential Host of Xanthomonas Oryzae Inoculum in Irrigated Rice Systems in Burkina Faso



Wonni Issa1, *, Sanou Adama1, Berthe Habibatou1, Zougrana Sylvain1, Léonard Ouedraogo1
1 Institut de l’Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles, 01 BP 910 Bobo Dioulasso 01, Burkina Faso


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Creative Commons License
© 2023 Issa et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Institut de l’Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles, 01 BP 910 Bobo Dioulasso 01, Burkina Faso;
Tel: +22670156832; Fax: +22625340271; E-mail: wonniissa@gmail.com


Abstract

Background:

Bacterial Leaf blight and bacterial leaf streak caused, respectively, by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola are two rice diseases that occur in rice-growing areas in Burkina Faso. For better management of both pathogens, it is essential to integrate the use of resistant varieties with good agronomic practices including weed management which plays a role in their survival and dissemination.

Objective:

This study aims to identify the main weeds that can act as reservoirs of Xanthomonas oryzae strains.

Materials and Methods:

Soil was sampled on three rice-growing sites. In the laboratory, we sifted the soil to collect the seeds of the weeds which were put in pots in the greenhouse for germination. After emergence, all weed species were inventoried and then inoculated to determine their host capacity.

Results:

We identified 14 species belonging to dicotyledons against 10 species from the Poaceae and three species from the Cyperaceae genus. This presence is effective in all plots sampled but at a variable level of prevalence. Our results showed that some Poaceae and Cyperaceae species were the main reservoirs of X. oryzae pv. oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola and behave sometimes like epiphytes. We detected a latent infection of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola from Oryza sativa, Echinochloa colona, Eleusine indica, Digitaria horizontalis, and Rottboellia cochinchinensis. Except Oryza longistaminata, Sacciolepis Africana, Paspalum vaginatum, Paspalum polystachyum, and Echinochloa colona which manifested typical symptoms of bacterial leaf streak, the other species showed yellowing, whitish spots and necrosis at the inoculation site.

Conclusion:

The high prevalence of weeds in rice fields, especially Poaceae and Cyperaceae, is one of the main causes of the importance of bacterial leaf streak disease in the irrigated rice system in Burkina Faso.

Keywords: Xanthomonas oryzae, Host, Weed, Burkina Faso, Faso, Cyperaceae genus.