Plant adaptive responses to environmental stresses occur with the participation of plant hormones and a network of signaling mediators. Among these, a growing attention has been paid over the recent years to gasotransmitters (GT). This term is used to define small gaseous molecules synthesized by living organisms that perform signaling functions. The main GT in plants are nitrogen monoxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The mechanisms of GT participation in the processes of plant adaptation to unfavorable environmental conditions have not yet been studied enough, which limits the use of GT in crop production. This review summarizes the latest data on GT synthesis in plants, the ability of GT to induce post-translational protein modifications in plants and to functionally interact with each other and with other signaling mediators. Particular attention is paid to the participation of GT in the regulation of antioxidant system, the state of cytoskeleton, and stomatal reactions of plants. These effects are important for stimulation by gasotransmitters the adaptation of plants to extreme temperatures, drought, and salinity. The possibilities of using GT donors in crop production were also considered.

Keywords: Gasotransmitters, Cell signaling, Post-translational protein modifications, Abiotic stresses, Plant resistance, Adaptive responses.
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