Molecular Characterization using Directed Amplification ‎of Minisatellite-region DNA (DAMD) Marker in Ficus Sycomorus L. (Moraceae)

Basel Saleh*
Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus, Syria

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© 2019 Basel Saleh.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Correspondence: Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus, Syria; Tel: 0096311-213580; Fax: 0096311-6112289; E-mails:;



Ficus sycomorus L. species exhibited great importance with various applications in pharmacology and medicine studies. However, little attention has been given to its molecular characterization.


The study aimed to assess DNA genetic diversity among 16 genotypes of F. sycomorus L. species.


Directed Amplification of Minisatellite-region DNA (DAMD) marker has been employed to investigate the genetic relationship among the studied genotypes of F. sycomorus L. species based on the estimated Percent Disagreement Values (PDV).


Twenty-four DAMD primers produced 194 bands, of which, 145 (74.742%) were polymorphic with Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) average of 0.219. DAMD-PCR application highlighted 12 unique markers characteristic for some studied genotypes. Cluster analysis showed that the studied F. sycomorus L. genotypes were split into two main distinguished clusters, each one was considered as a subspecies. In this respect, F. sycomorus14 and F. sycomorus15 genotypes were considered as subspecies too far from the second one containing the remaining genotypes.


The DAMD assay successfully highlighted genetic diversity within F. sycomorus species. More accurate molecular markers are required to confirm the current data.

Keywords: Ficus sycomorus L., DAMD, Molecular marker, Genotype, Genetic diversity, PDV.